Do not drink a lot of alcohol. Avoid alcohol completely if you have a history of alcoholism.
Use the medicines your health care provider gives you as directed.
Eat a balanced and healthy diet.
Take care of your teeth.
Manage high blood pressure.
Follow good safety practices.
Exercise is a key factor in staying healthy. Exercise strengthens the bones, heart, and lungs, tones muscles, improves vitality, relieves depression, and helps you sleep better.
Talk to your health care provider before starting an exercise program if you have health conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure, or diabetes. This can help ensure that your exercise is safe and that you get the most of out of it.
Cigarette smoking is the main preventable cause of death in the United States. One out of every five deaths each year is either directly or indirectly caused by smoking.
Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke is also linked to heart disease.
It is never too late to quit smoking. Talk to your health care provider or nurse about medicines and programs that can help you quit.
Drinking alcohol changes many brain functions. Emotions, thinking, and judgment are first to be affected. Continued drinking will affect motor control, causing slurred speech, slower reactions, and poor balance. Having a higher amount of body fat and drinking on an empty stomach will speed up the effects of alcohol.
Cancer and other diseases of the esophagus and digestive tract
Heart muscle damage
Do not drink alcohol when you are pregnant. Alcohol can cause serious harm to the unborn baby and lead to fetal alcohol syndrome.
Parents should talk to their children about the dangerous effects of alcohol. Talk to your health care provider if you or someone close to you has a problem with alcohol. Many people whose lives have been affected by alcohol get benefit from taking part in an alcohol support group.
DRUG AND MEDICATION USE
Drugs and medicines affect people in different ways. Always tell your health care provider about the all drugs you are taking. This includes over-the-counter medications and vitamins.
Drug interactions can be dangerous.
Elderly people need to be very careful about interactions when they are taking many medicines.
All of your health care providers should know all the medicines you are taking. Carry the list with you when you go for checkups and treatments.
Avoid drinking alcohol while taking medicines. This can be cause serious problems. The combination of alcohol and tranquilizers or painkillers can be deadly.
Pregnant women should not take any drug or medicine without talking to the health care provider. This includes over-the-counter medicines. The unborn baby is even more sensitive to the harm from drugs in the first 3 months. Tell your health care provider if you have been taking any drugs just before becoming pregnant. your health care provider.
Always take medicines as prescribed. Taking any drug in a way other than prescribed or taking too much can cause serious health problems. It is considered drug abuse. Abuse and addiction are not just associated with illegal "street" drugs.
Legal drugs such as laxatives, painkillers, nasal sprays, diet pills, and cough medicines can also be misused.
Addiction is defined as continuing to use a substance even though you are experiencing problems related to the use. Simply needing a drug (like a painkiller or antidepressant) and taking it as prescribed is not addiction.
DEALING WITH STRESS
Stress is normal. It can be a great motivator and help in some cases. But too much stress can cause health problems such as trouble sleeping, stomach upset, and anxiety and mood changes.
Learn to recognize the things most likely to cause stress in your life.
You may not be able to avoid all stress but knowing the source can help you feel in control.
The more control you feel you have over your life, the less damaging the stress in your life will be.
Obesity is serious health concern. Excess body fat can overwork the heart, bones, and muscles. It can also increase your risk for high blood pressure, stroke, varicose veins, breast cancer, and gallbladder disease.
Obesity can be caused by eating too much and eating unhealthy foods. Lack of exercise also plays a part. Family history may be a risk for some people as well.
Choose foods that are low in saturated and trans fat, and low in cholesterol.
Limit your intake of sugar, salt (sodium), and alcohol.
Eat more fiber, which can be found in fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grain products, and nuts.
Good dental care can help you keep your teeth and gums healthy for a lifetime. It is important for children to start young with good dental habits. Proper hygiene should include:
Brush your teeth twice a day and floss at least once daily.
Use of fluoride toothpaste.
Get regular dental checkups.
Limiting sugar intake.
Using a toothbrush with soft bristles. Replace your toothbrush when bristles get bent.
Have your dentist show you the proper ways to brush and floss.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening and Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care to Reduce Alcohol Misuse. Topic Page. May 2013.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Heatlhful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults. Topic Page. June 2012.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Counseling and Interventions to Prevent Tobacco Use and Tobacco-Caused Disease in Adults and Pregnant Women. Topic Page. April 2009.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening and Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care to Reduce Alcohol Misuse. Topic Page. April 2004.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Illicit Drug Use. Topic Page. January 2008.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Obesity in Adults. Topic Page. June 2012.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Prevention of Dental Caries in Preschool Children. Topic Page. April 2004.
Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.