Bronchiolitis is swelling and mucus buildup in the smallest air passages in the lungs (bronchioles). It is usually due to a viral infection.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Bronchiolitis usually affects children under the age of 2, with a peak age of 3 to 6 months. It is a common, and sometimes severe illness. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause. More than half of all infants are exposed to this virus by their first birthday.
Other viruses that can cause bronchiolitis include:
Drink plenty of fluids. Breast milk or formula is okay for children younger than 12 months. Electrolyte drinks, such as Pedialyte, are also okay for infants.
Breathe moist (wet) air to help loosen sticky mucus. Use a humidifier to moisten the air.
Get plenty of rest.
Do not allow anyone to smoke in the house, car, or anywhere near your child. Children who are having trouble breathing may stay in the hospital. Treatment there may need oxygen therapy and fluids given through a vein (IV).
Breathing often gets better by the third day and symptoms mostly clear within a week. In rare cases, pneumonia or more severe breathing problems develop.
Some children may have problems with wheezing or asthma as they get older.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider right away or go to the emergency room if your child:
Most cases of bronchiolitis cannot be prevented because the viruses that cause the infection are common in the environment. Careful hand washing, especially around infants, can help prevent the spread of viruses.
A medicine called palivizumab (Synagis) that boosts the immune system may be recommended for certain children. Your child's doctor will let you know if this medicine is right for your child.
Watts KD, Goodman DM. Wheezing, bronchiolitis, and bronchitis. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 383.
American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on the Diagnosis and Management of Bronchiolitis. Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1774-1793.
Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.